nothing’s original

Although both archetype and stereotype draw from a “type” of person to create character, the difference is that archetype will use the template as a starting place, and stereotype uses it as the end point.

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Archetype (n): a very typical example of a certain person or thing; types that fit fundamental human motifs.

Stereotype (n): A widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.

Trope (n): devices and conventions that a writer can reasonably rely on as being present in the audience members’ minds and expectations.

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If tropes seem a little too much like to stereotypes for comfort, that’s because, technically speaking, they are stereotypes. “A Trope is a stereotype that writers find useful in communicating with readers.” (x) However,

because the word stereotype has become so stigmatized in society, we prefer to think of tropes as specific to storytelling.

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Categorization

Categorization is the process in which ideas and objects are recognized, differentiated, and understood.[1] Categorization implies that objects are grouped into categories, usually for some specific purpose. Ideally, a category illuminates a relationship between the subjects and objects of knowledge. Categorization is fundamental in language, prediction, inference, decision making and in all kinds of environmental interaction.

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Since the research by Eleanor Rosch and George Lakoff in the 1970s, categorization can also be viewed as the process of grouping things based on prototypes—the idea of necessary and sufficient conditions is almost never met in categories of naturally occurring things. It has also been suggested that categorization based on prototypes is the basis for human development, and that this learning relies on learning about the world via embodiment.

A cognitive approach accepts that natural categories are graded (they tend to be fuzzy at their boundaries) and inconsistent in the status of their constituent members.

 

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f_ck it

In inflation-adjusted wages, male college graduates had starting salaries of $20.61/hour in 1979 and $21.68/hour in 2011, while female college graduates had starting salaries of $16.30/hour in 1979 and $18.80/hour in 2011.  That’s less than a 5% increase for men, and a bit more than a 10% increase for women. http://stateofworkingamerica.o…

Meanwhile the average college tuition climbed 650% over inflation between 1978 and 2010. http://nplusonemag.com/bad-edu… The results are as depressing as they are predictable.  Barely half of all student loans are even in repayment at the moment, with the rest being in deferral or forbearance.  Of those student loans that have entered repayment, about 1 in 3 (31%) are currently delinquent (>90 days late), according to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.  That is approaching the peak level of subprime mortgage delinquencies during the housing crash in 2008.

Aggregate student loan debt has virtually exploded over the last fifteen years, from $200 billion in 2000 to $440 billion around the time Obama was elected (4Q 2008) to $1.2 trillion today.  Throw that on a graph, and you’ll get the ominous hockey stick-shaped line that foretells nearly every economic crash.  Various analyses have tied this surging debt to the stall in the housing market – indeed, 25-34 years with student debt are less likely to be homeowners than their peers without student loan debt for the first time in history – to stalling auto sales (per GM’s chief economist), household formations, and to plummeting levels of retirement savings among the Millennial cohort.

Moreover, the stagnant wages afforded by the *college premium* have driven unprecedented numbers into graduate school, despite the author’s assertion otherwise, and federal data analyzed by the Washington Post last spring revealed that the number of graduate degrees awarded by American universities has increased 63% just since 2000.  Regular readers of this website and/or Inside Higher Ed will have no problem connecting that growth to the current job and debt crises in our nation’s law schools, graduate humanities and natural science programs, veterinary schools, and nonelite MBA programs.


the communities these people come out of

We have no problem in this country rewarding individuals of color momentarily as a way never to address structural cannibalistic inequalities that are faced by the communities these people come out of. …I am representative of a structural exclusion that room is made for “ones” so that room does not have to be made for the “manies”.

— Junot Diaz